Legends and stories for the season.

October 28, 2015 § 3 Comments

Dear Colleagues:

It is Halloween time in the United States and many other places. Whether a native tradition, or an imported commercial scam, the fact is that Halloween is now a part of many lives.  In past years, I have used this space to talk about the history of Halloween, horror movies, and even monsters and ghouls.  This time I leave to others the task of looking for the links between Halloween and the Day of the Death, and I will not even bother to refute those who are going around saying that the Mexican ceremonies from Michoacán state have their roots in Aztec culture when the Aztecs were not even from that part of the country.  This year I decided to share with you five of my favorite ghost stories and spooky legends from the Spanish speaking world. There are plenty more, including many stories from the rest of the world that I have also made my favorites and I will probably share in the years to come, but for now, please let me tell you the following stories and legends, so go ahead, dim the lights, get under the blanket, and prepare yourselves to be spooked:

Ánimas Mountain (El Monte de las Ánimas. Spain)

The story tells us that a long time ago, during the Arab occupation of Spain, the King of Castile asked the Knights Templar to come to Soria, a village in his kingdom and help him defend the city. Unfortunately, this made the local aristocrats angry as they thought that they were brave and skilled enough to defend the kingdom. The situation got worse because the Knight Templars controlled Ánimas Mountain, a place reach with game and a hunters’ paradise. As a result, the noble Castilians had to find their food somewhere else. They did not succeed and lived a life of austerity while the knights were hunting and enjoying the abundance of the mountain. Soon, both groups met in fierce battle that left Ánimas Mountain full of corpses that were eaten by the wolves. The king intervened and banned them all from going back to the mountain turning it into a desolated sight with a decaying Knights Templar chapel.  It is said that ever since, on the eve of the Day of the Dead, the chapel’s bell can be heard, and the souls of the warriors come back to the mountain wearing their torn battle suits and leaving their grim footprints behind. For many years people were cautioned not to go to the mountain on the Day of the Dead’s eve.

Then, many years later, Alonso, a young aristocrat from Soria, who was in love with Beatriz, a beautiful young woman who was visiting the village, and staying at the Count of Alcudiel’s palace, announced that she was going to leave the village and live in France. Alonso, devastated, confessed his love and told her of his fear of losing her forever. To this confession, Beatriz replied that in her kingdom there was a tradition where the gentleman would give the lady a garment or a personal item to pledge his love. Immediately, Alonso gave her the brooch that held the feather to his cap, and asked her what she was going to give him in return. She told him that she would pledge her blue ribbon. She looked for it, and realized that she had lost in on the mountain earlier that day, so she asked him to go to Ánimas Mountain and retrieve it.  Alonso admitted that he was afraid to go to the mountain that night, but she did not change her mind. Finally full of fear, Alonso got on his horse and off he went in search of the blue ribbon.

As the night got darker, Beatriz heard noises, a bell, and horrible screams coming from the mountain until she finally fell asleep. The following morning she woke up to the screams of nobles and commoners alike. They were yelling that young Alonso had died on the mountain the previous night. She got out of bed to go outside, and that was the moment when she saw a torn bloody blue ribbon on her bed. When the servants reached her chambers to tell her of Alonso’s death, they found Beatriz dead; her face had with a horrible expression: She had been scared to death!

From that day on, the legend tells that on every Day of the Dead’s eve, the skeletons of many warriors can be seen fighting all over the mountain, and if you pay special attention, you can see the figure of a pale barefooted bloody woman yelling and screeching around Alonso’s grave.

The House of Don Juan Manuel (La casa de don Juan Manuel. Mexico)

There was a house in 16th Century Mexico City, the colonial capital of New Spain. It’s address: 94 Uruguay Street. It was the home of Don Juan Manuel de Solórzano, a wealthy man who was married to a beautiful woman who happened to be much younger than him. Don Juan Manuel was very jealous and he firmly believed that his wife was cheating on him. To find out who was her lover, he invoked the devil and made a deal: Don Juan Manuel gifted his soul to the devil in exchange for the name of his wife’s lover. Once the deal was sealed with Satan, Don Juan Manuel learned that his wife had been loyal to him all along, but it was too late.  The house still exists in Mexico City and it is presently used as an events ballroom. It is said by many that at night you can see a man dressed in 16th Century fashion who paces in front of the main entrance and approaches those who go by the house and asks them the same question: “What time is it?” and when the answer happens to be: “eleven o’clock”, Don Juan Manuel just answers back: “How fortunate is the man who knows the time of his death”.

La Tunda (Colombia)

Do not confuse the name with the Spanish word for a beating. It has nothing to do with it. It is said that for centuries, a horrific creature has inhabited the forests of Colombia’s Pacific coast. This monster has an insatiable appetite for human flesh and it prefers small children. Hunters and their families can be tricked by this creature at night when it takes the shape of a beautiful woman to trap men, and imitates the voice of a child’s mother to lure them into the forest where it holds them prisoners in a cave until it eats them one by one. The legend says that in order to keep them from running away, the creature feeds them seafood with special powers that paralyze the body leaving the victims totally helpless.  Many say that even now, especially in the Chocó region of Colombia, you can hear this motherly voice calling for its victims at night.

The Legend of Caá-porá (Paraguay)

There is a giant with a huge head who lives in the Guaraní Mountains of Paraguay. This huge being can only be seen in the most inaccessible parts of the mountains, but those who have encountered it, claim that he smokes a macabre pipe made of a human skull. Caá-porá will not harm those who go to the mountains to hunt for their own food, sometimes he even guides their dogs to the prey. However, this giant is ruthless with hunters who go to the mountains for the sole purpose of hurting the animals. Those hunters will face Caá-porá who will devour the animals before the hunters can get to them, spoiling their hunting trip. On other occasions, this big-headed giant can confuse the dogs so they cannot find any game, and kill the hunters to eat them.  It is said that those who have escaped the giant and made it back to civilization, come back under a spell and are never the same. Now you know, so the next time you go to the Guaraní Mountains and run into a hunter who may look bewitched, dozing or sleepy, you will have met a victim who escaped from Caá-porá.

Súpay (Argentina)

Also known as Zúpay, is a devil known since the days of the Incas. Súpay lives in the northern and central regions of Argentina in an underground cave named Salamanca. His home was originally called Supaihuasin (hell in Quichua).  This devil dresses all in black with a broad hat, gold and silver ornaments, spurs, a dagger, and a guitar. On Tuesday and Friday nights, it rides its horse until it finds some unsuspecting travelers. He asks them to dinner, and after hours of food and drinking, and once Súpay has entertained its guests with his guitar, he proposes a deal to his victims: their souls in exchange for temporary fortune and reaches.  Súpay followers visit his underground cave to learn his black magic and other means to hurt people.

I did my part to put you on the Halloween mood, now I ask you to please share with us other chilling legends or stories from your countries.

Is it Spanish or Castilian?

June 18, 2013 § 13 Comments

Dear colleagues:

Today I decided to write about something we all know and many of us are sick and tired of: The eternal question that we as interpreters are constantly asked by the agency, the client, and the lay person: Is it Spanish or is it Castilian?

If you are a Spanish interpreter, translator, or even a native Speaker you will understand either term as one that is used to refer to the language spoken by the majority of the people who live in Spain, Latin America, Equatorial Guinea, and some parts of North America.  Of course, you will have a preference for one or the other depending where you grew up or learned the language, but you will understand (and occasionally use) both terms.  The problem is that when we are working as Spanish interpreters, sometimes we are asked by the agency or by the client to “speak Castilian instead of Spanish” or we may even be rejected from an assignment because we are Spanish interpreters and they are looking for a “Castilian interpreter.”

To set the record straight we should tell our inquisitor or prospective client that historically Spanish is a Romance language that comes from Latin, and it is called Spanish as it comes from españón in Old Spanish, which most likely comes from the Vulgar Latin hispani­ōne or hispaniolus, because the Romans referred to Spain as Hispania.  Then we explain that Castile is a word derived from the Latin castella (castle-land) that comes from the also Latin term castrum (fortress or castle) That it was a border region of Spain next to the Moorish territories. That at the end of the Middle Ages, with the assistance of the Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Castile expelled these Moorish rulers from the peninsula. In those days, before Spain was a single country, the people from this kingdom were called Castilians and the language they spoke, which evolves from the old Castilian, was known as Castilian. With time, and the expansion of the Spanish crown in the world, including the Americas, the entire region was called Spain in England, Espagne in France, and the non-Portuguese people from the peninsular region and their language became known as Spanish.  In the Americas the native speakers picked their favorite term to refer to the same language as well.  Some regions, like the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present Mexico and parts of the United States) preferred the term Spanish as they were part of the Spanish monarchy; others, like the Captaincy General de Guatemala (present Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and parts of Mexico) chose Castilian thinking of the original rulers who sponsored the first expeditions and their representatives in the new world, who were from Castile.

In Spain, the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) used the term Castilian in the past, but since 1923 its dictionary has used the term Spanish when referring to the language spoken by more than 300 million people around the world. In fact, its dictionary is called Dictionary of the Spanish Language (diccionario de la lengua española) The language academies from the other Spanish-speaking countries, including the United States, are grouped under the Association of Spanish Language Academies, which participated in the creation of the Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, a dictionary that encompasses mistakes and doubts in Spanish whose production was agreed upon by all 22 national language academies.  The dictionary states the following: “…it is preferable to keep the term Castilian to refer to the Romance language born in the Kingdom of Castile during the Middle Ages, or to the dialect of Spanish currently spoken in that region…” (Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. 2005)

Therefore, the official recommendation is to use Spanish over Castilian.

In Spain, the constitution states that “Castilian is the official language of the State…” In reality, multilingual regions tend to refer to the language as Castilian to tell it apart from their own native languages. Monolingual regions tend to use the term Spanish when referring to the language they speak.  In Latin America and elsewhere, the constitutions of these countries use the term Castilian: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. These other nations use the term Spanish in their constitution: Costa Rica, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. No term is mentioned in the constitution of: Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico and Uruguay.

The reality is that it really does not matter which term is used to refer to the third most spoken language in the world, and the second most widely spoken on earth. The important issue we need to understand is that when non-Spanish speakers ask us to interpret Castilian instead of Spanish, they are not talking about the language we speak because they do not know that there is only one Spanish (or Castilian) They are trying to tell us that they want a “universal” more general Spanish (although some of us do not believe there is such a thing and I will address it on another blog entry) They are trying to reach more people and they do not know how. It can also mean that they want the interpreter to stay away from Spanglish (a mix of Spanish and English) and Portuñol (a mix of Portuguese and Spanish) and because of the people they have worked with in the past, they do not know that by hiring a professional capable interpreter they do not need to worry about these issues. So the next time somebody asks you to interpret in Castilian or rejects you from speaking Spanish instead of Castilian, take a deep breath, explain as much, or as little, as you think necessary, and assure the client that you will interpret in Castilian.  I ask you to please share your ideas as to what to do to educate the client about this topic while taking the appropriate business measures and steps to keep the client.  Please do not write about why it is better to call it Spanish or Castilian.

Los intérpretes judiciales y los diccionarios jurídicos bilingües.

November 24, 2012 § 1 Comment

Queridos colegas,

Durante años he visto como muchos de nuestros colegas en el desempeño de su trabajo consultan diccionarios bilingües que no son jurídicos.  Esto es algo que siempre me ha molestado inmensamente por ser abogado e intérprete.  Nunca he podido entender la lógica de consultar un diccionario bilingüe inglés<>español cuando se desconoce un término o una figura jurídica.  Claro que puede haber contadas ocasiones en que el diccionario bilingüe ordinario resuelva el problema, pero en la inmensa mayoría de los casos no será así. De hecho, el buen intérprete sabe, o al menos debería saber, que para poder interpretar correctamente cualquier tema, en este caso una diligencia judicial o algún otro tipo de acto jurídico, el intérprete necesita primero hacer su tarea: investigar, estudiar y comprender el tema,  desarrollar su glosario, y consultar los diccionarios más adecuados para el trabajo en cuestión.

Hay que saber cómo escoger las herramientas para el servicio a proporcionar. Si se trata de un  juicio penal, el buen intérprete debe rodearse de las leyes y reglamentos aplicables, los textos necesarios para entender la terminología que se va a utilizar, y los diccionarios jurídicos y diccionarios bilingües jurídicos aplicables al caso en particular dependiendo de los sistemas jurídicos en cuestión. No sirve de mucho un diccionario jurídico de España cuando el caso es de derecho argentino.  Igualmente, un diccionario jurídico bilingüe inglés<>español solo puede ayudarnos cuando corresponde a la terminología y sistema jurídico del país en que sucedió el caso o de donde provienen las partes que no hablan inglés.

Yo sostengo que no existe la “interpretación jurídica español<>inglés” como tal. Al menos no la buena interpretación.  Nuestro trabajo es especializado. De igual manera que no quisiéramos que el proctólogo nos saque la muela del juicio, no debemos permitir, ni aceptar, casos en los cuales desconocemos la terminología jurídica del país correspondiente a menos que nos preparemos correctamente para ello. Esta preparación implica el uso y la consulta de los materiales adecuados.

También es importante mencionar que debemos tener una terminología y sistema jurídico que sean nuestra “base.” Aquellos que nos sirvan de punto de partida.  Para ello sugiero un par de cosas: Si ya hemos decidido especializarnos en algún país de habla hispana en particular, digamos el Paraguay, entonces debemos adquirir conocimientos y libros sobre derecho paraguayo.  Por otro lado, si lo que deseamos es tratar de estar en aptitud de prestar nuestros servicios en el sistema y terminología jurídicos más populares en el lugar donde vamos a prestar nuestros servicios primordialmente, entonces hagamos lo mismo respecto a ese sistema y terminología. Por ejemplo México en la mayor parte del país o la República Dominicana en otras áreas de los Estados Unidos.

Yo he optado por el derecho y terminología mexicana (en español) y estadounidense (en inglés) ya que esto también me abre el mercado de abogados y empresas más grande del mundo hispanoparlante. En este sentido, además del texto de las leyes y reglamentos de ambos países y de los tratados y convenciones internacionales obligatorios para ambas naciones,  yo recomiendo obtener antes que nada el diccionario jurídico Black’s para la terminología y sistema jurídicos de los Estados Unidos.   Para el derecho mexicano sugiero el diccionario de la biblioteca jurídica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) que es gigantesco, pero afortunadamente podemos consultarlo por internet. Finalmente, yo recomiendo el diccionario jurídico bilingüe de Javier Becerra (2 tomos) publicado por la Escuela Libre de Derecho en la ciudad de México.  Hay otros diccionarios jurídicos y bilingües jurídicos muy buenos, que aún cuando no se concentran en la combinación del derecho estadounidense y el mexicano, me han sido de utilidad al resolver problemas de terminología muy reciente o aquella que requiere de adaptación por no tener figura jurídica homóloga en el otro sistema. En este sentido sugiero la segunda edición del nuevo diccionario de Derecho y Procedimientos Penales de Sandro Tomasi.

Les sugiero a mis colegas que verdaderamente quieran “sonar” como abogados al prestar sus servicios de interpretación a mexicanos o en temas de derecho mexicano y derecho de los Estados Unidos, que se basen en estos diccionarios.  No cometan el error de basarse en diccionarios o aún peor en manuales o glosarios que traten terminología de otros países, o que hayan adoptado definiciones y terminología basado en lo que se dice en la “mayoría” de los países, o en lo que “se dice aquí en los Estados Unidos.”  Aléjense de esa mediocridad.  Es esencial que el buen intérprete conozca sus recursos y sepa dónde encontrar lo que necesita. Nuestra profesión ha madurado, con la globalización se ha especializado, y cada día es más competitiva. Dejemos atrás los días en que veíamos a una intérprete presentarse a una declaración bajo protesta (porque en México no se jura, se protesta declarar la verdad) en un despacho de abogados acompañada de libros y manuales que tratan superficialmente la terminología jurídica. Empecemos a tener vergüenza profesional y a entender qué es lo que necesitamos. Una vez que alcancemos esta meta vamos a mejorar nuestra calidad, nuestro ingreso, y evitaremos las burlas a nuestras espaldas por llegar a trabajar en una declaración bajo protesta de un mexicano, que es materia civil, acompañados de un manual genérico que trata de derecho penal.  Por favor escriban sus opiniones respecto al uso de estos diccionarios.

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