The confusing list of holidays in the United States.

February 15, 2018 § 7 Comments

Dear colleagues:

Many colleagues who live abroad, and others who live in the United States but grew up somewhere else, have asked me about the holidays in the United States.  Many visitors to the U.S. are often confused when they see holidays where everything is closed, holidays where some things are closed, and holidays where everything is closed in one place and open somewhere else. I thought this was a good time to explain our unique holiday schedule because on the third Monday in February, we observe Presidents’ Day, our third federal holiday of the year.  This apparent chaos is really a manifestation of the fifty states’ sovereign powers, and the result of the different history, culture, origins, interests, and values of each one.

The United States is a federation of fifty states and each state has its own legislation and decision-making process.  Because of this system Americans have two types of holidays: Those determined by the United States Congress, and observed in all fifty states, are called federal holidays; and those that have been declared by state and local governments, and are only observed in a specific state, county, or city.  The latter ones are state or local holidays.  By comparison with other countries the United States has very few federal holidays, but the states are a different story.

All federal government offices close on federal holidays but the state and local governments remain open unless the federal holiday is also a state holiday.  Federal government offices continue to work on state holidays, and sometimes, only city or county offices may close for the day in observance of a local holiday to honor a local hero or commemorate an event of great importance at the city level. Unless they are government workers, Americans go to work on many holidays. To the foreign observer, a good rule to remember is that on federal holidays, all federal government offices, banks, and the post office will be closed. On state holidays, all state government offices and public schools will be closed. The rest of the American people will have the day off during major federal holidays, and the citizens of a particular state will not have to work on a local holiday, even if the rest of the country does. It is only on major holidays, which are observed at the state and federal level, that everybody enjoys a day away from the workplace.

On January 1, 1971 Congress passed the “Uniform Monday Holiday Act” which shifted most holidays to a Monday in the month where the original holiday was observed.  The states followed the same system shortly after.  There are 11 federal holidays in the United States:

New Year’s Day. January 1*

Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Third Monday in January

Presidents’ Day. Third Monday in February

Memorial Day. Last Monday in May*

Juneteenth. June 19 (Starting in 2021)

Independence Day. July 4*

Labor Day. First Monday in September*

Columbus Day. Second Monday in October

Veterans Day. November 11

Thanksgiving Day. Fourth Thursday in November*

Christmas Day. December 25*

*Major federal holidays.

All government offices are closed on them all.

Except for Presidents Day, Veterans Day, and Juneteenth National Independence Day, all 50 states observe the rest of the federal holidays as state holidays. The states that do not observe Presidents Day as a state holiday are:

Delaware

Georgia

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

North Carolina

Rhode Island

Wisconsin

Some states opted out of this holiday because they honor Washington and Lincoln on a different date.

The only state not to observe Veterans Day is Wisconsin. At the inception of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, some counties in Arizona considered not observing the holiday.

As of June 2021, Juneteenth is not observed in Hawaii, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

There are many reasons for the states’ holidays, some are historical, like Mississippi’s Robert E. Lee’s Birthday in January, Hawaii’s King Kamehameha Day in June, or Massachusetts’ Patriots Day in April. Other are cultural, like California’s Cesar Chavez Day in May, or Maryland’s American Indian Heritage Day in November. Other holidays have a practical reason to exist, like Indiana’s Primary Election Day in May, and General Election Day in November; some are for convenience like designating the fourth Friday in November as a holiday, under different names, in many states, and some are religious, like Kansas’ Christmas Eve in December, or Delaware’s Good Friday. There are also local holidays observed in a particular city or county, not the rest of the state. To honor Casimir Pulaski (Kazimierz Pulaski), a War of Independence hero born in Poland, the City of Chicago, and Cook County, Illinois, observe Pulaski Day on the first Monday of every March. On that day, Chicago and Cook County government offices are closed, and children leaving in Chicago do not go to school.

Some states have no state holidays. The following States have no State holidays, only federal:

Arizona

Colorado

Florida

Idaho

Oregon

Wyoming

Also keep in mind there are certain “celebrations in the United States” that are treated like holidays even though they are not: Super Bowl Sunday in February, Cinco de Mayo in May, and St. Patrick’s Day in March are not official holidays and everybody works on those dates.

This is the complete list of all state holidays in the United States by state:

Alabama

Mon Jan 15 Robert E. Lee’s Birthday

Tue Feb 13 Mardi Grass Day

Mon Apr 23 Confederate Memorial Day

Mon Jun 4 Jefferson Davis Birthday

Alaska

Mon Mar 26 Seward’s Day

Thu Oct 18 Alaska Day

Arkansas

Mon Jan 15 Robert E. Lee’s Birthday

Mon Feb 19 Daisy Gatson Bates Day

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

California

Sun Feb 4 Rosa Parks Day

Sat Mar 31 Cesar Chavez Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Connecticut

Mon Feb 12 Lincoln’s Birthday

Fri Mar 31 Good Friday

Delaware

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Thu Nov 8 Return Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

District of Columbia

Mon Apr 16 DC Emancipation Day

Georgia

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Mon Apr 23 Confederate Memorial Day

Fri Nov 23 Georgia State Holiday

Mon Dec 24 Washington’s Birthday Holiday (Following year on Dec 26)

Hawaii

Mon Mar 26 Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Mon June 11 King Kamehameha Day

Fri Aug 17 Statehood Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Illinois

Mon Feb 12 Lincoln’s Birthday

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Indiana

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Tue May 8 Primary Election Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Fri Nov 23 Lincoln’s Birthday Holiday

Mon Dec 24 Washington’s Birthday Holiday (Following year on Dec 26)

Iowa

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Kansas

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Kentucky

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Mon Dec 31 New Year’s Eve

Louisiana

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Tue Feb 13 Mardi Gras Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Maine

Mon Apr 16 Patriots Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Maryland

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Fri Nov 23 American Indian Heritage Day

Massachusetts

Mon Apr 16 Patriots Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Michigan

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Mon Dec 31 New Year’s Eve

Minnesota

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mississippi

Mon Jan 15 Robert E. Lee’s Birthday

Mon Apr 30 Confederate Memorial Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Missouri

Mon Feb 12 Lincoln’s Birthday

Tue May 8 Truman Day

Montana

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

Nebraska

Fri Apr 27 Arbor Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Nevada

Fri Oct 26 Nevada Day

Fri Nov 23 Family Day

New Hampshire

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

New Jersey

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

New Mexico

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Presidents Day Holiday

New York

Mon Feb 12 Lincoln’s Birthday

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

North Carolina

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Wed Dec 26 Christmas Holiday

North Dakota

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Ohio

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Sat Dec 1 Rosa Parks Day

Oklahoma

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Wed Dec 26 Christmas Holiday

Pennsylvania

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Rhode Island

*Does not observe Presidents Day

Mon Aug 13 Victory Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Tue Nov 6 General Election Day

South Carolina

Thu May 10 Confederate Memorial Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Wed Dec 26 Christmas Holiday

South Dakota

Mon Oct 8 Native American Day

Tennessee

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Wed Dec 26 Christmas Holiday

Texas

Fri Jan 19 Confederate Heroes Day

Fri Mar 2 Texas Independence Day

Fri Mar 30 Good Friday

Sat Mar 31 Cesar Chávez Day

Sat Apr 21 San Jacinto Day

Tue Jun 19 Juneteenth

Mon Aug 27 Lyndon B Johnson Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Wed Dec 26 Christmas Holiday

Utah

Tue Jul 24 Pioneer Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Vermont

Tue Mar 6 Town Meeting Day

Thu Aug 16 Bennington Battle Day

Virginia

Fri Jan 12 Lee-Jackson Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

WashingtonFri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

West VirginiaWed Jun 20 West Virginia Day

Mon Oct 8 Columbus Day

Fri Nov 23 Thanksgiving Friday

Wisconsin*Does not observe Presidents Day

*Does not observe Veterans Day

Mon Dec 24 Christmas Eve

Mon Dec 31 New Year’s Eve

I hope this brief explanation, and comprehensive holiday list, help you to understand better the holiday calendar of the United States. I now invite you to comment on this subject.

The Christmas traditions we observe in the United States.

December 24, 2017 § 2 Comments

Dear Colleagues:

The end of the calendar year marks a time when most cultures in the world slow down their work routines, gather with friends and relatives, and reflect on what was accomplished during the year while setting goals to achieve what was not.  Some give the season a religious connotation, others choose not to do so. Regardless of the personal meaning and importance that each one of us give to this time of the year, there is a common denominator, certain actions, traditions, and celebrations observed and held dear by many. They vary from country to country, and are part of the national pride and identity of a nation.

The United States is a unique case because of the convergence of cultures and populations from around the world who have brought with them their language, beliefs and traditions.  With globalization many other regions in the world now live the same situation where not everybody celebrates everything, not everybody celebrates the same, and even the ones who celebrate a particular festivity or observe certain event will do it differently depending on their cultural background. I also want to point out that, due to the immense commercial and cultural influence of the United States just about everywhere in the world, some traditions below will be recognized as something that you do in your country.

Although Christmas is not the only festivity where we see this American reality, I decided to share with you our national traditions on this day because it is widely observed and understood throughout the world, and because it is a nice thing to share with all of you when many of us are slowing down and waiting for the new year.  Finally, before I share these American traditions with you, I want to clarify that although this entry deals with Christmas traditions, it does it from a cultural perspective with no religious intent to endorse or offend anyone. I know that many of my dearest friends and colleagues come from different religions, cultural backgrounds, and geographic areas; and the farthest thing from my mind is to make you feel left out, ignored or offended. This post is written with the sole intention to share cultural traditions, and invite an exchange of information about other customs observed at the end of the year by other groups and countries.  Thank you for your understanding, and please enjoy:

In the United States the Christmas season, now called the holiday season to make it more inclusive, starts on the day after Thanksgiving known as “Black Friday”. Many schools and businesses close between Christmas (December 25) and New Year’s Day (January 1). Most Americans take this time out from their professional and academic schedules to spend time with their friends and families. Because of the high mobility we experience in the United States, it is very common that families live far from each other, often in different states; so that children go home to the parents’ is more significant as it may be the only time they see each other face to face during the year.

Many Americans decorate the exterior of their homes with holiday motifs such as snowmen, Santa Claus, and even reindeer figures.  As a tradition derived from holding Christmas in winter in the northern hemisphere when daylight is scarce, Americans install temporary multi-colored lights framing their house or business.  Because of its beauty and uniqueness, this tradition has spread to southern parts of the United States where winters are mild and daylight lasts longer. The American southwest distinguishes itself from the rest of the country because of the lights they use to decorate their buildings: the luminarias, a tradition (from the Spanish days of the region) of filling brown paper bags with sand and placing a candle inside.

The interior of the house is decorated during the weeks leading to Christmas and on Christmas Eve. Christmas tree farms in Canada and the United States provide enough trees for people’s homes, although many prefer an artificial tree.  These trees are placed at a special place in the house and are decorated with lights and ornaments, and at the very top an angel or star is placed on Christmas Eve.  Unlike many other countries, in particular those where most people are Roman Catholic, Americans hold no big celebration on Christmas Eve, known as “the night before Christmas”, the time when Santa Claus visits their homes while children are sleeping and leaves presents for the kids to open on Christmas morning.  As a sign of appreciation, or perhaps as a last act of lobbying, children leave out by the tree a glass of milk and cookies for Santa to snack during his visit.

Special Christmas stockings are hung on the fireplace mantelpiece for Santa to fill with gifts called “stocking stuffers” that will be found by the kids on Christmas Day while the yule log will provide heat and holiday smells. Even those homes that have replaced the traditional fireplace with an electric one have kept the yule log tradition; and when everything else fails, cable TV and satellite TV companies offer a TV channel that broadcasts only a yule log all day.

Adults exchange presents previously wrapped in festive seasonal wrapping paper, and even the pets get Christmas presents every year.  With the presents exchanged,  people move on to their Christmas dinner that will usually feature ham, roast beef, and even turkey with stuffing, although many families skip the bird because they just had it for Thanksgiving dinner a few weeks before.  Potatoes, squash, roasted vegetables, cranberries and salads are part of the traditional meal, but in some regions of the United States, demographic cultural fusion has added other dishes to the traditional family dinner: It is common to find tamales in a Hispanic Christmas dinner, poi and pork in Hawaii, BBQ turkey or chicken in the south, and sushi and rice in an Asian household. Unlike Thanksgiving when pumpkin pie is the universal choice, many desserts are part of the meal: pies, cakes, fruit, and the famous fruitcake.  They are all washed down with the traditional and very sweet eggnog or its “adult” version with some rum, whisky, or other spirits.

The Los Angeles Lakers and the Chicago Bulls have made it a tradition to have home NBA basketball games on Christmas Day that are broadcasted on national TV.  Other traditions include Christmas carols, window shopping the season-decorated department stores, special functions such as the Radio City Music Hall Christmas show and the Rockefeller Center Christmas tree in New York City, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir in Salt Lake City, the National Christmas tree in Washington, D.C., the Very-Merry Christmas Parade held simultaneously at Disney World in Orlando and Disneyland in Anaheim, the Nutcracker ballet in theaters and school auditoriums all over the United States, and endless Christmas movies and TV shows, including the original “A Charlie Brown Christmas” and Dr. Seuss’ “How the Grinch Stole Christmas” with Boris Karloff as the voice of the Grinch.

I hope this walk through American Christmas traditions was fun, helped some of you to understand a little better the culture of the United States, and maybe part of what you just read will be handy in the booth one day. Whether you live in the U.S. or somewhere else, I now ask you to please share some of your country or family’s Christmas or other holiday-related traditions with the rest of us.  I sincerely hope you continue to honor us by visiting this blog every week in 2018. Thank you for your continuous preference, and happy holidays to all!

Christmas traditions in the United States.

December 22, 2015 § 1 Comment

Dear Colleagues:

The end of the calendar year marks a time when most cultures in the world slow down their work routines, gather with friends and relatives, and reflect on what was accomplished during the year while setting goals to achieve what was not.  Some give the season a religious connotation, others choose not to do so. Regardless of the personal meaning and importance that each one of us give to this time of the year, there is a common denominator, certain actions, traditions, and celebrations that are observed and held dear by many. They vary from country to country, and are part of the national pride and identity of a nation.

The United States is a unique case because of the convergence of cultures and populations from around the world who have brought with them their language, beliefs and traditions.  With globalization many other regions in the world now start to live the same situation where not everybody celebrates everything, not everybody celebrates the same, and even the ones who celebrate a particular festivity or observe certain event will do it differently depending on their cultural background. I also want to point out that, due to the immense commercial and cultural influence of the United States just about everywhere in the world, some of the traditions below will be recognized as something that you do in your country as well.

Although Christmas is not the only festivity where we see this American reality, I decided to share with you our national traditions on this day because it is widely observed and understood throughout the world, and because it is a nice thing to share with all of you during this time when many of us are slowing down and waiting for the new year.  Finally, before I share these American traditions with you, I want to make it very clear that although this entry deals with Christmas traditions, it does it from a cultural perspective with no religious intent to endorse or offend anyone. I am very aware of the fact that many of my dearest friends and colleagues come from different religions, cultural backgrounds, and geographic areas; and the farthest thing from my mind is to make you feel left out, ignored or offended. Please understand that this post is written with the sole intention to share cultural traditions, and invite an exchange of information about other customs observed at the end of the year by other groups and countries.  Thank you for your understanding, and please enjoy:

In the United States the Christmas season, now referred to as the holiday season in an effort to make it more inclusive, starts on the day after Thanksgiving known as “Black Friday”. Many schools and businesses close between Christmas (December 25) and New Year’s Day (January 1). Most Americans take this time out from their professional and academic schedules to spend time with their friends and families. Because of the high mobility we experience in the United States, it is very common that families live very far from each other, often in different states; so the fact that children go home to the parents’ is more significant as it may be the only time they see each other face to face during the year.

Many Americans decorate the exterior of their homes with holiday motifs such as snowmen, Santa Claus, and even reindeer figures.  As a tradition derived from holding Christmas in the middle of winter in the northern hemisphere when daylight is scarce, and before electricity it was practically non-existent, Americans install temporary multi-colored lights framing their house or business.  Because of its beauty and uniqueness, this tradition has spread to southern parts of the United States where winters are mild and daylight lasts longer. The American southwest distinguishes itself from the rest of the country because of the lights they use to decorate their buildings: the luminarias, a tradition (from the Spanish days of the region) of filling brown paper bags with sand and placing a candle inside.

The interior of the house is decorated during the weeks leading to Christmas and at the latest on Christmas Eve. Christmas tree farms in Canada and the United States provide enough trees for people’s homes, although many prefer an artificial tree.  These trees are placed at a special place in the house and are decorated with lights and ornaments, and at the very top an angel or star is placed on Christmas Eve.  Unlike many other countries, in particular those where a majority of people are Roman Catholic, Americans do not hold a big celebration on Christmas Eve, known as “the night before Christmas”, the time when Santa Claus visits their homes while children are sleeping and leaves presents for the kids to open on Christmas morning.  As a sign of appreciation, or perhaps as a last act of lobbying, children leave out by the tree a glass of milk and cookies for Santa to snack during his visit.

Special Christmas stockings are hung on the fireplace mantelpiece for Santa to fill with gifts called “stocking stuffers” that will be found by the kids on Christmas Day while the yule log will provide some heat and holiday smells. Even those homes that have replaced the traditional fireplace with an electric one have kept the yule log tradition; and when everything else fails, cable TV and satellite TV companies offer a TV channel that broadcasts nothing but a yule log all day.

Adults exchange presents that were previously wrapped in festive seasonal wrapping paper, and even the pets get Christmas presents every year.  With the presents exchanged,  people move on to their Christmas dinner that will usually feature ham, roast beef, and even turkey with stuffing, although many families skip the bird because they just had it for Thanksgiving dinner a few weeks before.  Potatoes, squash, roasted vegetables, cranberries and salads are part of the traditional meal, but in some regions of the United States, demographic cultural fusion has added other dishes to the traditional family dinner: It is common to find tamales in a Hispanic Christmas dinner, poi and pork in Hawaii, BBQ turkey or chicken in the south, and sushi and rice in an Asian household. Unlike Thanksgiving when pumpkin pie is the universal choice, a variety of desserts are part of the meal: pies, cakes, fruit, and the famous fruitcake.  They are all washed down with the traditional and very sweet egg nog or its “adult” version with some rum, whisky, or other spirits.

The Los Angeles Lakers and the Chicago Bulls have made it a tradition to have home NBA basketball games on Christmas Day that are broadcasted on national TV.  Other traditions include Christmas carols, window shopping the season-decorated department stores, special functions such as the Radio City Music Hall Christmas show and the Rockefeller Center Christmas tree in New York City, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir in Salt Lake City, the National Christmas tree in Washington, D.C., the Very-Merry Christmas Parade held simultaneously at Disney World in Orlando and Disneyland in Anaheim, the Nutcracker ballet in theaters and school auditoriums all over the United States, and endless Christmas movies and TV shows, including the original “A Charlie Brown Christmas” and Dr. Seuss’ “How the Grinch Stole Christmas” with Boris Karloff as the voice of the Grinch.

I hope this walk through American Christmas traditions was fun, helped some of you to understand a little better the culture of the United States, and maybe part of what you just read will be handy in the booth one of these days. Whether you live in the U.S. or somewhere else, I now ask you to please share some of your country or family’s Christmas or other holiday-related traditions with the rest of us.  Happy holidays to all!

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