Interpreter played a crucial role at the first Thanksgiving.

November 27, 2014 § 1 Comment

Dear colleagues:

On this Thursday the people of the United States celebrate Thanksgiving: the most American of all holidays. Christmas is also a very big day in America, but unlike Christmas that is only observed by Christians, Thanksgiving is a holiday for all Americans regardless of religion, ethnicity, or ideology. There are no presents, and every year during this fourth Thursday in November, people travel extensively to be with their loved ones and eat the same meal: a turkey dinner.

It is important to distinguish between the religious act of thanking God for the good fortune and the American holiday called Thanksgiving Day. The former was held by many Europeans all over the new world as they gave thanks for setting foot again on dry land. Explorers and conquistadors observed these religious ceremonies in places like Virginia, Florida, Texas, and New Mexico. There are documented ceremonies held on (at the time) Spanish territory as early as the 16th. Century by Vázquez de Coronado, and we have records of the festivities that took place in Jamestown, Virginia during 1610.

The first Thanksgiving holiday that we presently observe can be traced to a celebration that took place at the Plymouth Plantation in Massachusetts. The settlers had a bad winter followed by a successful harvest in 1621. During that crude winter survival was possible thanks to the help of the local residents: The Wampanoag tribe. Massasoit, who was the tribe leader, donated food to the English when the food they brought from England proved to be insufficient. Cooperation between Native-Americans and Europeans included agriculture, hunting, and fishing lessons. The settlers were taught how to catch eel and grow corn, and were briefed on the geography and weather conditions of the region. This partnership took place because of the good disposition of all those who participated; however, trust had to be established and communication had to be developed. The Europeans and Native-Americans spoke different languages and had very little in common. The English settlers were very fortunate as they had among them a Patuxent Native-American who had lived in Europe, first in England and Spain as a slave, and later in England as a free man. During his years in Europe, this man learned English and had the ability to communicate in both languages: English and the one spoken by the Wampanoag tribe. His name was Squanto (also known as Tisquantum), and he played an essential role in this unprecedented cooperation between both cultures. He was very important during the adaptation and learning process. His services were extremely valuable to settle disputes and misunderstandings between natives and settlers. There are accounts of Squanto’s ability and skill. He was embraced by the settlers until his dead. In fact, his work as an interpreter and cultural broker made it possible for two very different peoples to sit down and share a meal and a celebration when on that first Thanksgiving, the settlers held a harvest feast that lasted three days. As many as ninety Native-Americans, including King Massasoit attended the event. They ate fish, fowl, and corn that the English settlers furnished for the celebration, and they had five deer that the Wampanoag took to the feast. Although it is not documented, it is possible that they also had some wild turkeys as they existed in the region. Undoubtedly Squanto must have worked hard during those three days facilitating the communication between hosts and guests.

We now celebrate this all-American holiday every year. It has been observed since President Abraham Lincoln declared it a national holiday; and it has been observed on the fourth Thursday of November since President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that it should be observed on that Thursday instead of the last one of the month as sometimes November has five Thursdays. Thanksgiving is also the most American of all holidays because we celebrate family, football and the start of the best retail season of the year: Christmas. We now have Black Friday and Cyber-Monday. We travel by plane, car, and train to go home for this turkey dinner, and we all gather around the TV set to watch football and parades. This Thanksgiving as you are carving the turkey, pause for a moment and remember the interpreter who helped make this all possible: Squanto the Patuxent Native-American. Happy turkey day!

How creativity saved the interpretation.

November 21, 2014 § 5 Comments

Dear colleagues:

Today I will talk about two topics you are all very familiar with: Creativity and quick thinking. Two necessary elements in every interpreter’s repertoire that are used to solve problems and avoid catastrophes in the complex business of communication among those who do not speak or understand the same language. An individual must possess a series of characteristics to be a professional interpreter; among them: the ability to take a concept or idea in one language, understand it and process it, and then render it into another language with the appropriate cultural context necessary for the listener to comprehend the message without any effort, therefore freeing him to concentrate on the content of the message the orator is delivering in the foreign language. This multitasking requires of a quick and agile mind. The interpreter cannot be slow in thinking, processing, or delivering the message. It is impossible.

Just as important as a quick mind is the capacity and resolve to act when needed, and in the interpreting world where many times we encounter a reality where some of the cultural concepts of the parties are at odds, the interpreter needs to resort to his creativity and sense of improvisation.

I am sure that you all have had your chance to apply these two skills during your professional career. In my case there have been too many instances when my interpreting partner or I have acted with great speed and creativity to avoid a problem; this made it difficult to decide which one I should use for this post. After a long rewind of some memorable experiences, I picked an instance where creativity and quick thinking were enhanced by the interpreters’ teamwork.

Sometime ago I was working the Spanish booth at a conference in a European country. I cannot remember the exact topic, but it had to do with the environment. There were delegates from many countries and there were interpreters with many language combinations. During the fourth day of the event the morning session was uneventful. My booth partner and I finished our shift in the Spanish booth and went to get some lunch. That afternoon the second speaker was from an English-speaking country where people have a very distinctive accent and way of talking. In the speaker’s particular case the accent was very heavy and it took a few minutes to get used to his speech. Some thirty minutes into the presentation, right after I had handed the microphone to my partner, I heard a knock on the door of the booth. It was one of the Italian booth interpreters. She looked frazzled and frustrated when she told me that her booth was having a very hard time understanding the speaker, and from the questions she asked me about the speech, it became apparent that they were really missing a good portion of the presentation. These interpreters were fairly new, I had never seen either one of them before, but from my observations during the first three days of the conference I could see that they were good, dedicated, and professional. I immediately empathized with them as I recalled the many occasions in the past when a speaker with a heavy accent, weak voice, or bad public speaking habits had made me suffer throughout a rendition. It was clear that they were not going to understand much more during the rest of the presentation that still had about two hours to go; it was also obvious that we needed to do something about it.

After some brainstorming with the Italian interpreter, while our respective colleagues worked in the booth, (the second Italian interpreter no-doubt sweating bullets throughout the speech) certain things became apparent: The two colleagues in the Italian booth were professionally trained interpreters with great command of the booth, and with excellent delivery skills. It was also very noticeable that they both spoke Spanish very well. After these facts were spelled out, we both concluded that the solution to the “heavy accent” issue was a relay interpreting rendition. We decided that the Spanish booth would take the feed from the floor in English, interpret the source in that very heavy accent into Spanish, and then the Italian booth would pick up the feed from our booth in Spanish and deliver it into their target language, in this case: Italian. Because of the teamwork, camaraderie, and will to help on the part of all four interpreters, and due to the experience and skill of the Spanish booth, and the great command of the booth and pleasant delivery of the Italian booth, we were able to deliver our service to both: the Spanish and Italian speakers seamlessly. This would have never happened without the interpreters’ professional minds working very fast to find a solution, and without the creativity of the interpreters that made it possible to switch gears in the middle of a very important event already in progress. Once again I proved to myself (and others) that professionalism and formation count. They are important tools that a real interpreter needs to use when the situation demands it. Without professionalism there is no sense of camaraderie, and without that perception that we are all colleagues, the two booths would have never worked together and solved the situation. I would love to hear some of your stories where creativity, a quick mind, or the sense of camaraderie among professional colleagues helped you to overcome a professional obstacle.

Military Interpreting: For many interpreters the least known part of the profession.

November 10, 2014 § 8 Comments

Dear colleagues:

The National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators in the United States (NAJIT) recently published an article I wrote on military interpreting in its official publication “Proteus.”

Military interpreting has always inspired me. I have the greatest respect and admiration for all those language professionals who serve their countries in harm’s way. For this reason, and motivated by my desire to share something about this part of our profession with all those who live abroad and maybe did not see the article, I have decided to post a version of this article with the needed changes to fit a blog format and honor my commitment to NAJIT. On this Veteran’s Day, I invite you to read it and to share your thoughts with the rest of us.

The conquest of Gaul by Caesar in 58 BC, Hannibal’s march across the Alps in 218 BC, the defeat of Persia by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, the Mongol invasion of China in 1279 AD and Napoleon’s victory over the Third Coalition in 1805 have at least two things in common: They are among the greatest military campaigns in the history of the world, and they all involved two or more nations that spoke different languages. On the afternoon of April 9, 1865, General Ulysses S. Grant arrived at a small courthouse to meet with General Robert E. Lee. After four years of war Lee had come to Grant to bring the American Civil War to an end. The two generals had a quick chat about a time they met each other in Mexico during the Mexican-American War, politely negotiated the terms of surrender, signed the agreement, and then waved each other off. The whole thing was over in just a couple of hours. Surrenders can be much easier when both parties speak the same language.

The first interpreter appears in history some 45,000 to 60,000 years ago when the Homo sapiens first met the Neanderthals and realized that they could not communicate. That first interpreter could have been a commercial/trade interpreter (unlikely) or a military interpreter that helped negotiate territorial borders, travel rights, and other related matters; perhaps a surrender, maybe a declaration of war. We all know what is the oldest profession, but unlike translation that appears when humans develop a writing system, I am convinced that interpreting is the oldest bilingual profession in the world. Ever since that time, human groups have made war and they have used the services of soldiers and sailors who spoke the enemy’s language. Military interpreting is as old as humans.

What is military interpreting?

military interpreter is a commissioned officer of an armed force who interprets and/or translates to facilitate military operations. According to the United States Army careers and jobs description, a military interpreter is an individual primarily responsible for interpreting and sight translating between English and a foreign language who will first require nine weeks of basic combat training followed by advanced individual training to learn the skills that are required to perform interpreter support in several areas such as checkpoints, medical support, training host nation armed forces, VIP escort, and cultural awareness.   Interpreter officers are used extensively in multinational operations in which two or more countries do not share the same language, or in expeditionary missions where communication with the local population is crucial. Interpreter officers also work in the intelligence gathering and analysis together with civilian interpreters, translators, and analysts. In other words, military interpreting is an essential activity within a country’s armed forces during war and peace times.

A military organization’s demand for interpreters and translators changes according to the location of the military conflict. During the Cold War years the United States military and intelligence services placed particular emphasis on Russian, German, and other languages spokes behind the iron curtain. After September 11, 2001 the demand shifted to Arabic languages such as Arabic, Farsi and Pashto. In recent years there has been a resurgence of the need for French interpreters and translators because of the developments in Northern Africa and the Middle East.

The armed forces need for interpreters and translators also changes depending on the type of war being fought. During World War II the orders were to shoot all soldiers wearing an enemy uniform and interpreters were needed to interrogate prisoners of war, sight translate intercepted messages, and negotiate with enemy commanders. During the Vietnam War and the conflict in Afghanistan things were quite different, U.S. personnel were fighting against guerilla armies with no identifiable uniforms; for this type of military action interpreters are required to develop a close and trusting relationship with the locals; this requires a certain knowledge of the culture and social structure of those whose trust the interpreter needs to gain. In a war zone an interpreter could mean the difference between life and death for soldiers and sailors. The interpreter could overhear, as it has happened, part of a conversation about an ambush or an assassination. Spanish language military interpreters are generally used for natural disaster relief operations and for security checkpoints. Although the United States has no armed conflict with any Spanish speaking country, the fact that there are millions of Spanish speakers in the United States who do not speak English, and its geographical location, make of Spanish a very important language for military interpreting and translating.

Behind the lines interpreters play an important role in logistics and diplomacy. When an elected official visits a military base, military interpreters serve as escort interpreters for said dignitaries. They also participate in media relations with local news agencies, and in the acquisition of supplies from local merchants. Interpreters also listen to radio reports, watch local TV stations, and skim newspapers to gather information about local issues.

Who are the military interpreters?

Military interpreters have been essential to most historical events in the world. Besides the examples mentioned above, we can think of the arrival of the Spaniards to Mexico and Peru where interpreters like Malintzin and Felipillo played a prominent role during the conquest. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés first met Malintzin after he defeated the Maya-Chontal forces in what is now the western part of the Yucatan peninsula. At the beginning, while she learned Spanish, Cortés used her as his Chontal Maya <> Náhuatl interpreter. She worked together with Gerónimo de Aguilar, a Spanish priest Cortés freed from the Mayans after years of captivity and knew Chontal, doing relay interpreting. It wasn’t long before she learned Spanish and Cortés realized how skilled she was, so she became his personal interpreter. She also taught Aztec culture to Cortés, and even protected him by warning him of an assassination attempt that had been planned while they were staying in Zempoala, the same way modern-day military interpreters are trained to do if they ever find themselves in that situation. After Columbus’ discoveries at the end of the 15th. century were known in Europe, and the Spanish conquistadors got to the Americas at the beginning of the 16th. century, they arrived to conquer and submit. It was a military enterprise, not a good-will tour; thus the interpreters that aided Cortés, Pizarro and the other Spanish commanders were military interpreters, not diplomatic linguists. It is extremely important to keep in mind that most of these native interpreters, including Malintzin and Felipillo, were not citizens of the big empires the Spanish army was fighting against. They were members of other native nations that had been submitted, oppressed, and exploited by the powerful Aztec and Inca Empires.

Military interpreters come from all walks of life. In the United States they mainly come from three different places: The military officers and regular members of the armed forces; civilians who have some foreign experience and language skills such as former foreign service officers who have spent time abroad working in embassies and consular offices; and local foreigner civilians from the conflict area who speak the required language as their mother tongue and have proficiency in English.

In the United States the 223rd. Military Intelligence Battalion provides interpreting, translating, counter-intelligence, and interrogation services, supporting the Army and the rest of the intelligence community. Many of the civilian and military officers who want to become interpreters attend the Defense Language Institute, a United States Department of Defense educational and research institution which provides linguistic and cultural instruction. The Defense Language Institute’s (DLI) primary foreign language school and training of trainers center are at the Presidio of Monterey, California, and it issues Associate of Arts in Foreign Language degrees to those students who come from the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and law enforcement agencies to study one of over 40 languages that are taught at this facility. DLI (through the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State) has a facility in the Washington, D.C. area where it provides training in languages not taught at the Presidio of Monterey, and a location al Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. In recent years the United States Department of Defense has held some innovative courses like the Military Translation and Interpretation Training Pilot Program developed by Cyracom International for the Defense Language Institute. The United States Army currently has 14,000 “soldier-linguists” stationed around the globe. Compare this figure to the mere 1,000 interpreters who are certified to work in the United States Federal Court system in Spanish, Haitian-Creole, and Navajo. Of late, the U.S. Armed Forces have been relying more on outsourcing these services to private contractors. This is big business if you consider that in 2007 one of the largest language services contractors in Afghanistan was paid $700 million to provide about 4,500 interpreters and translators. Many of these interpreters are excellent and their language pairs are in high demand, so it is expected that once they leave the Armed Forces they will definitely impact the civilian language services market in the United States and abroad

What do military interpreters do?

Like all interpreters, military interpreters do consecutive and simultaneous interpretation as well as sight translation; however, the way the services are rendered and the environment where they are provided are very different from other types of interpreting. Sight translation is a very important part of their work. There are two kinds of sight translation: The “traditional sight translation” used primarily for strategic and intelligence purposes, and the more widely used summary sight translation. This type of sight translation is used during house searches, enemy searches and searches of local civilian population. The interpreter looks at the document, skins through it, and summarizes its contents for his superior officer. Then the superior officer decides, based on the information provided by the interpreter, if the document merits a more detailed sight translation or even a written translation. Keep in mind that many times during a search soldiers may come across a foreign document written in a language that does not use the Roman alphabet; summary sight translation helps the officer to differentiate a laundry ticket from the directions to build a bomb.

The most commonly used interpretation is a combination of simultaneous and consecutive rendition. When negotiating with the local elders or with enemy forces, interpreters often simultaneously interpret to their superior officer what the counterpart is saying. They do this by whispering into the superior officer’s ear; next, they interpret the superior officer’s words (questions and answers) to the counterpart using a consecutive rendition. Of course, this can vary depending on the number of officers the interpreter is interpreting for; if there are several, then the interpreter will do everything consecutively. The interpreter’s courage and skill are admirable as very often they perform the work under adverse circumstances such as choppers flying over their heads, shots being fired at them, or being surrounded by wounded people crying for help. All of it as they try to interpret and carry a weapon at the same time. Kathryn Bigelow’s movie: “Zero Dark Thirty” shows the role of the military interpreter throughout the film. There is one scene where an interrogation is being conducted through an interpreter performing (as it happens in the real world) a consecutive rendition. And of course, there is the sequence at the end of the movie when during the raid a navy seal turns to the interpreter and tells him to ask a young woman if the man they just shot was Bin Laden. You see the interpreter (previously seen getting off the chopper in full gear alongside the seals) pulling the woman aside, asking her, and reporting back to his superior.

Essential principles of military interpretation (Ethical considerations)

Because of their function, military interpreters work under a different code of professional responsibility. Yes, they are ethically bound to do a professional job, to interpret with accuracy, to prepare for the assignment and to interpret to the best of their ability. They are also ruled by a different set of values and constraints: A military interpreter’s top priority and obligation is to his country and to his fellow soldiers, sailors, marines, or airmen. His rendition can and should suffer when he must take care of other priorities such as cover a fellow soldier, take cover himself, assist a wounded soldier, or comply with an order from a superior officer. Their loyalty is to their platoon or battalion. They are not neutral communicators; they are partial and serve one side: their armed forces. Military interpreters are required to interpret everything that the enemy or counterpart says, but they should only interpret back what they are told to interpret. If a superior officer tells them not to interpret to the counterpart either a portion of a speech or a paragraph of a letter, they must remain silent. They are always on duty as they may come across valuable intelligence at any time. It is important to understand that military interpreters are the only interpreters who work in an environment where one of the parties may be the enemy, and may want to kill him. Other interpreters, even court and diplomatic interpreters work in scenarios where there is an adversarial situation, but never with an enemy. Military interpreters are the only ones who hold a weapon while doing their rendition, and the only ones who, if necessary, have to be prepared to shoot one of the persons they are interpreting for. Military interpreters are motivated and moved by the highest principles of love of country and protection of their fellow citizens. This is important because the ethical justification to their job comes from this top values that most societies embrace. Military interpreters go to work every day ready to give their life for their country, and indeed this is common occurrence. Native military interpreters work under tremendous pressure and face incredible danger. They are repudiated by a big chunk of their communities, and are considered traitors by many. American military interpreter officers and enlisted personnel are at constant risk of fire and roadside bombs. Not long ago State Department Foreign Service Officer Anne Smedinghoff and her escort military interpreter were killed in Afghanistan while participating in a book give-away to local Afghan kids. She was 25.

The future of military interpreting.

A very pressing issue about the future of military interpreting has to do with another ethical and moral question: Should the nations who hire local military interpreters protect them after the conflict is over, and should these governments take the interpreters with them when they leave? This is a question that many military interpreters in Iraq and Afghanistan are asking and to this day they have not received a clear answer. Countries like the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain and Australia need to decide how they are going to handle this delicate situation. A negative or an affirmative answer that comes too late could have an impact on the recruitment of local military interpreters in the future.

As already stated, military interpreting has always been around and it is expected to continue to be an essential component of the armed forces. Languages may change and tactics could differ, but the profession as such will remain basically the same. One day military interpreters may not need to put themselves in harm’s way. The U.S. military already has automated airplanes and it is working on the development of a robot interpreter. In April 2011 the defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) issued a call to tech companies to design a robot interpreter that must be able to perform sight translations and interpret local gestures as well. It is unlikely that the armed forces will turn over their military duties to a machine, especially in the near future, but maybe space travel will be a place where robotic military interpreters will star their careers as the new “rookies” in the profession.

Although the Pentagon will not turn over its military interpreting and translation services to a machine or to a computer programmer in the near future, military interpreters will have an unprecedented impact on our profession during peacetime. Every day very capable military interpreters are coming back to civilian life, and they are joining civil society with language pair combinations that not long ago were next to impossible to get. These professional interpreters will flood the market with a new kind of interpreter: one who is used to work under a lot of stress and in very tough conditions, one that will bring to the table language skills and the cultural knowledge of their clients; if the government lives up to its promise and does not abandon those local military interpreters who served during the war, we may be able to choose native speakers for these assignments. That would certainly be a wonderful way to write the final page on the armed conflicts that we have lived now for over a decade, and a way to thank our military servicemen and women who worked as military interpreters, and at the same time render tribute to this little known but vital part of our profession. Now I invite you to share your thoughts on military interpreting with the rest of us.

Trick or treat and America’s own monsters.

October 30, 2014 § 3 Comments

Dear colleagues:

Every year the Halloween season reaches more countries, adapts to its people, and becomes part of their culture. In the United States, a country where the decorations of our homes for this event are only second to Christmas, the main activity is called “trick or treating.” Americans decorate their homes with fake spider webs, plastic monsters, and Jack-O’-Lanterns. That evening in every city and town in the United States children of all ages dressed as scary creatures, fantastic heroes, and beautiful princesses, go door to door asking the same question: “trick or treat?” The adults answering the door respond by giving away candy to the little monsters.

Much of the American Halloween comes from old English and Irish traditions. Much is one hundred percent American. Something is American (as from the United States) when it comes from somewhere else, it is accepted, it is assimilated, and then it is molded to the American taste and culture. That is exactly what happened to our very own Halloween. Let’s take the term Jack-O’-Lantern for example: It comes from East Anglia’s “foolish fire” known as “will-o’-the-wisp” or “Will-of-the-torch.” Will was replaced by Jack and it became “Jack of the lantern.” “Trick or treating” comes from the old country’s “guising.” Back in Great Britain and Ireland during All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day, children and the poor would go “souling”: Singing and paying for the dead in exchange for cakes.

Since the 1950s on October 31 American kids go trick or treating from around 5:30 pm to 9:00 pm. This tradition has been exported to some countries. Kids in Canada, the United Kingdom and Ireland also “trick or treat.” Kids in many parts of Mexico ask for their “calaverita.”

The Halloween tradition in the United States includes costumes of some very American creatures whose job is to scare our kids all year long. Of course, universal monsters also show their face on Halloween. Although Dracula, Frankenstein’s monster, the wolf man and the mummy are popular characters, we have our home-grown, and sometimes home-adopted, favorites. These are some of our monsters:

The ghoul: A folkloric monster or spirit that roams in graveyards and eats human flesh.

The boogeyman: A mythical creature with no specific aspect that was created by adults to frighten children.

Matchemonedo: An invisible bear-god that congeals the plasma of those who are unlucky enough to run into this beast in downtown Chicago where it lives.

The headless horseman of Sleepy Hollow: the ghost of a Hessian trooper whose head was shot off by a cannonball during the American War of Independence. A creation of Washington Irving, this creature rides tirelessly in search of his head.

Michael Myers: A hellish creature created by filmmaker John Carpenter. As a child, Michael killed his older sister and now every Halloween he returns home to murder more teenagers.

El cucuy: A mythical ghost-monster from Hispanic heritage that hides in closets and under beds and eats children that misbehave or refuse to go to bed when they are told to do so.

The creature from the Black Lagoon: An American amphibious humanoid that lives in a lagoon of the Amazon Jungle where time has stopped. He preys on pretty young woman who dare to swim in his pond.

La llorona: A Mexican legend of a weeping female specter trapped in between the living world and the spirit world that ceaselessly looks for the children that she drowned. She takes those kids who resemble her dead children and those who disobey their parents. La llorona is now a very well known creature and her tale is shared with all kids in the United States’ southwest.

These are some of the most popular characters who will undoubtedly show up on your driveway on Halloween asking for some candy. I now invite you to have some fun and tell us about your favorite Halloween creatures from the United States or anywhere else in the world… unless you are afraid to do so…

Dealing with certain kind of difficult interpreters on a professional level.

October 23, 2014 § 8 Comments

Dear colleagues:

This time I am going to refer to a problem that many of us have encountered during our careers: The individual who is also an interpreter and he or she is difficult to deal with at the professional level, not when we go out and socialize, but when we are doing our job. I am not talking about the lazy interpreter, the self-centered know-it-all interpreter, the bad interpreter, or even the vulgar disrespectful interpreter. My colleagues, this time I want to discuss a situation where a colleague gets an assignment, job, or promotion and has a personality change.

We all know colleagues who have made career changes or have received a promotion; that is great if that is what they wanted to accomplish and I think we would all agree that this makes us happy for that person. In fact, many of these changes have benefited the profession at large because these colleagues are now using their new position or status to improve the quality of the service and the working conditions for all of us. They recognize that one of the reasons for their hiring or promotion was the fact that they have been interpreters in the past: they have walked the walk. These changes have contributed significantly to the advance of our profession. Unfortunately, not everybody reacts the same way.

Some time ago I was in an interpreter social gathering with many old and new friends. As it often happens, some colleagues began to talk shop and it was not long before quite a few of them were talking about an interpreter who had recently been hired or promoted (I did not get all the details) to a position that now rendered this individual as the one with the power to hire interpreters for assignments; This person was now in charge of assigning interpreters, negotiating pay and other labor conditions, and setting protocol and procedure for those who wanted to work with that organization. Apparently, this person had been another freelancer until recently and had been a good colleague, maybe not the best interpreter, but certainly a very reliable one. The person was well-liked by the professional community, so the hiring (or promotion) was received warmly by the other interpreters. It all seemed to indicate that this was going to be an excellent choice for everybody; one of those changes that I was referring to at the beginning of this piece. Unfortunately, it did not happen that way.

Apparently, the freelance interpreters saw many changes once this person was hired and became part of the company’s staff. They all received innumerable emails with memos that were setting rules and policies for everything imaginable: How to report the status of an assignment (right in the middle of the event!) how to get paid, how to invoice, how to write a cover letter, how to dress for work, and many others. These interpreters were not happy. Remember: They were no rookies; most of them were practicing their profession way before this newly hired individual decided to become an interpreter, and they were doing a good job; there were no complaints.

When some of them questioned the newly hired “supervisor” on these changes, the person responded by saying that these changes to the system would help the company’s clerical staff as they would make it easier for them to understand what the interpreters were doing. He never even addressed the fact that this would require of more of the freelancers’ time because they were being asked to do part of the employees’ work for the same fee. Everyone knows that to a freelancer time is equal to money.

According to this policy, they now had to do extra work for the same pay. In other words, by implementing all these bureaucratic rules and policies, the first thing this person did in the new job was to give the interpreters a pay cut. This reminded me of the time when, for a brief period of time, I was part of the system and the first thing I was told was that from that moment on I was a corporate entity and all my decisions and actions should be geared to protect the employer, regardless of what happened to the interpreters. I was told that it was us against them. Needless to say, under that philosophy, I barely lasted a blink of an eye at that job.

After listening to this heartbreaking story, I told the interpreters at the social gathering to diversify even more, to try to work for that individual as little as possible, to reject the bureaucratic memos, to continue to provide a quality professional service, and to keep in mind that although time is money for the freelancer, the rule does not apply to those like this person who will make the same paycheck regardless of how they spend their time. I mentioned that even though this person may be socially friendly and nice to them, they must remember that somewhere deep inside, these individuals are always aware of their professional limitations, and consider that promotions, like the one the individual got in this case, are the zenith of their career; I reminded them that even when we don’t see their job that way, they do, and they will defend their newly acquired status with everything they have. I told them that this strategy of versatility and widening our scope of practice is exactly what I have been doing throughout my career. Eventually, we should always use these nonsensical circumstances as motivation to grow as professionals and look for newer and better professional opportunities. I now ask you to share your personal experience with individuals in similar circumstances to the ones described in this post, and to tell us what you did to either adjust and cope with the circumstances, or to get out of this situation.

State court interpreter certifications could turn meaningless.

October 16, 2014 § 17 Comments

Dear Colleagues:

A couple of weeks ago I received an email that concerns me enormously. I am sure that many of you who are based in the United States have received similar emails from state-level judicial agencies. In my case, I got an electronic communication from the Administrative Office of the Courts of one of the fifty states in the U.S. (not the federal government) this was one of those global emails that are sent out to everybody on a master list. Basically, the message was that the National Center for State Courts in the United States (NCSC), apparently in coordination with (at least) some states, is planning to offer remote telephonic interpreting across state lines, and for that purpose, the states (and I assume the NCSC as well) are compiling lists of state-level certified court interpreters who may want to be part of the interpreter pool that will be used to interpret court hearings from a different state. Although I hope the message’s meaning was different, this is what I understood. The email is written in such a way that, to the reader, this idea looks good and beneficial for everyone: the interpreters, because they will have more work (although I would guess that the fees offered by the state governments will not be anything to brag about) the states with underserved populations due to the lack of interpreters, because they will get somebody who has been certified somewhere by a state-level judiciary, and the foreign language speaker, as they will have the services of a professional interpreter instead of a family member or a paraprofessional.

Does it sound good to you? Well, if I understood the email as a communication asking permission to include interpreters’ names on a master list to indiscriminately interpret by phone, regardless of the state, it did not sound even half decent to me. Let me explain:

It is true that state-level certified interpreters are better equipped than paraprofessionals, and therefore the service provided should be of better quality. It is true that all state-level certified interpreters have attended a basic orientation and they have passed a court certification test (now administered by the NCSC or CLAC) and in many cases they have also taken an ethics and professional responsibility test. This obviously puts them ahead of those unscrupulous people that are roaming through the hallways of many courthouses in the United States. Unfortunately, and this is the real and very big problem: these interpreters, who have been certified by one of the fifty states, would now interpret cases from other states where both substantive and adjective law are different. That is the problem. The interpreter will interpret legal proceedings based on legislation that he does not know. Unlike U.S. federally certified court interpreters who work nationwide because they interpret the same federal legislation all across the country, these state-level individuals will have to deal with fifty, sometimes very different, legal systems.

Just like the age to get married and gun control laws vary from state to state, the catalog of crimes and civil law contracts are different. Think of one single situation: battery and assault; or is it assault and menacing? Well, the answer is: it depends on the state, and the differences are radical. Penalties and procedures also change depending on the state. This is why attorneys can only practice in those jurisdictions where they have passed the Bar Exam. It is a very delicate matter.

If this is indeed what the NCSC and the states want to do (and I hope I am wrong) then I am extremely concerned as an interpreter, because this will be another attempt to de-professionalize our jobs and make them look more like the legal secretary who can work anywhere, and less like the attorneys who can only practice in the state (or states) where they are members of the state bar. Sure, I understand that state-level agencies will praise the “benefits” of this solution, which in reality will solve their own problem (not the interpreters’ or the foreign language speakers’): Compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act. This is a state-level priority because states that do not comply will lose federal money.

I am also worried as an attorney for several reasons: First, states will allow interpreting services across state lines using telecommunications. This could be an interstate commerce issue where the federal government has to participate (at least); but the second reason is the one that motivated me to write this post: interpreters who do not know the legal system of a particular state will practice in that jurisdiction. They may physically be in the state where they are certified, but their services will affect a court system, and litigants in another state where they have never demonstrated their capacity to practice. I believe attorneys who represent foreign speakers need to be aware of this potential “solution” so that from the beginning they know that perhaps the case could later be appealed for ineffective assistance of the interpreter. Attorneys need to know that when they are advising their client on an assault charge in their home state, they may be using the services of an interpreter from a state where assault really means battery. Lawyers will need to assess the potential procedural complications in case they sue the interpreter. Jurisdiction will have to be determined, and these lawsuits could end up in federal court.

If this “program” has also been planned for civil cases, then the problem is worse. Remember, there are at least three different civil legal systems in the United States, the one followed by those states who have a system based on the Anglo-Saxon tradition, those whose system comes in part from the days where these territories were part of the Spanish Crown (just think divorce and community property division) and then Louisiana and the Napoleonic written system. As an attorney, or a foreign language speaker, I would not want to have an interpreter from another state, much less one from a state where the system is different.

I sure hope that this “solution” (if conceived as I understood it) is discarded and the states look for better options such as a higher fee for those interpreting in state courts. There are very good and capable interpreters everywhere in the United States, it is just that they will not work for the fees currently offered. A more attractive fee would also encourage others who would like to join the profession but are reluctant because of the lack of money to even make a decent living.

By the way, these problems apply to those languages where there is no certification and the interpreters are registered or qualified to work in court by a particular state.

I really wish I am mistaken and this is not happening in the United States, but if it is, I will continue to watch the developments of this program, and if needed, I will speak up in legal forums to bring awareness of the potential risks generated by using state-level certified interpreters in places where they have never been certified. I now ask you to share your thoughts, and concerns, about this potential change that would end up rendering a state-level court interpreter certification useless.

Going to the ATA Conference in Chicago? You may want to read this.

October 9, 2014 § 14 Comments

Dear Colleagues:

The ATA Annual Conference is just around the corner, and this year it will be in beautiful Chicago. As many of you know, I live in Chicago and consider it a wonderful place to live and work. Obviously, I was very happy to learn that so many of my interpreter and translator friends and colleagues would be visiting Chicago this year. Finally, I thought, many of you would get to see the city that I brag so much about. It just does not get any better than this: The mother of all conferences and the beautiful town!

Unfortunately, as the dates of the conference were announced, I realized that once again ATA had scheduled the event for November. I never missed an ATA conference as long as they were held in October, but November is not a good month for me; it is a time of many important professional commitments. I tried two years ago in San Diego (the last time I presented in ATA) where I attended the conference for one day and then flew back to the east coast for work-related reasons. Last year I could not make it to San Antonio because of the November dates either. So here we are now, with the biggest conference in our field taking place in my hometown, and with me away from the city for the duration of the event. After this reality sank in, I decided to find a way to make sure that those of you who will be attending the conference could get the best out of our town; in other words: I needed to figure out a way to welcome you to Chicago without being physically there. This is what I came up with. For the next paragraphs I am going to take you through Chicago, I am going to provide you valuable and useful information, and I am going to recommend several places and activities the same way I wanted to do it in person when I first realized that ATA was coming to town. Here it is: from me, to you.

GETTING TO THE SHERATON TOWERS FROM THE AIRPORT.

From O’Hare:

O’Hare is located about 45 minutes away from the hotel.

Arriving on a domestic flight

By Taxi: Go outside the terminal on the same level where you will claim your luggage. There are booths where you can get a taxi (lines may be pretty long depending on the time of the day) A ride to the hotel should be around $55.00 – $60.00 All taxis take credit cards in Chicago.

By Shuttle: Go to the GO Airport Express desk on the same level where you claim your luggage and buy a ticket (round-trip suggested as fare is lower than a one-way ticket) Round trip fare: $54.00 per person. You can pay cash or by credit card, and you can even buy the tickets online from home. The ride to the hotel could take about 90 minutes as these shuttles stop at many hotels. There is no Super Shuttle in Chicago.

By Subway: After you get your luggage, follow the signs to the Blue Line subway terminal inside the airport. Take the blue line to Forest Park and get off at Washington Station (17 stops, about 50 minutes) walk to State Street and either take a taxi (5 minutes to hotel for about $8.00 to $10.00) or take City Bust #29 to Navy Pier and get off at Columbus (about 7-10 minutes) Then walk one block south to the hotel. Subway: $3.50 per person one-way. City bus: $3.25 per person one-way. Subway, L Train, and city buses do not take cash. You will need to purchase a ticket from the machines at the station, or a CTA card for your entire stay at any Walgreens Drug Store. The Blue Line station at O’Hare has machines that take credit cards.

Arriving on an international flight

You will arrive at Terminal 5.

By Taxi: After immigration and customs, Walk outside the terminal and get a taxi from the booth. A ride to the hotel should be around $60.00 – $65.00 All taxis take credit cards in Chicago.

By Shuttle: After immigration and customs, Walk outside the terminal and go to the GO Airport Express booth. You may have to wait for a shuttle for several minutes. If there is no clerk at the booth, dial the phone number on the sign and they will send a shuttle to pick you up. When the booth is unmanned, you can buy the ticked directly from the driver (round-trip suggested as fare is lower than a one-way ticket) Round trip fare: $54.00 per person. You can pay cash or by credit card, and you can even buy the tickets online from home. If you do not want to wait for the shuttle to arrive to Terminal 5, after clearing immigration and customs, you can take the airport train to Terminal 3 (it is free) go to the lower level, and get your tickets at the GO Airport Shuttle desk. (The ride to the hotel could take about 90 minutes as these shuttles stop at many hotels. There is no Super Shuttle in Chicago.

By Subway: After immigration and customs, take the airport train to Terminal 3 (it is free) go to the lower level, and follow the signs to the Blue Line subway terminal inside the airport. Take the blue line to Forest Park and get off at Washington Station (17 stops, about 50 minutes) walk to State Street and either take a taxi (5 minutes to hotel for about $8.00 to $10.00) or take City Bust #29 to Navy Pier and get off at Columbus (about 7-10 minutes) Then walk one block south to the hotel. Subway: $3.50 per person one-way. City bus: $3.25 per person one-way. Subway, L Train, and city buses do not take cash. You will need to purchase a ticket from the machines at the station, or a CTA card for your entire stay at any Walgreens Drug Store. The Blue Line station at O’Hare has machines that take credit cards.

From Midway:

Midway airport is located about 30 minutes away from the hotel.

Ground transportation process is the same for international and domestic flights

By Taxi: Go outside the terminal on the same level where you will claim your luggage. There are booths where you can get a taxi (lines may be pretty long depending on the time of the day) A ride to the hotel should be around $35.00 – $40.00 All taxis take credit cards in Chicago.

By Shuttle: Go to the GO Airport Express desk on the same level where you claim your luggage and buy a ticket (round-trip suggested as fare is lower than a one-way ticket) Round trip fare: $46.00 per person. You can pay cash or by credit card, and you can even buy the tickets online from home. The ride to the hotel could take about 45 minutes as these shuttles stop at many hotels. There is no Super Shuttle in Chicago.

By Subway: After you get your luggage, follow the signs to the Orange Line L train terminal connected to the airport. Take the orange line on the only possible direction and get off at State/Lake Station (13 stops, about 40 minutes) This is an elevated train. You must go down to the street level to State Street and either take a taxi (5 minutes to hotel for about $8.00 to $10.00) or go to the bus stop in front of the Chicago Theatre (about 20 yards) and take City Bust #29 to Navy Pier and get off at Columbus (about 7-10 minutes) Then walk one block south to the hotel. Subway: $3.50 per person one-way. City bus: $3.25 per person one-way. Subway, L Train, and city buses do not take cash. You will need to purchase a ticket from the machines at the station, or a CTA card for your entire stay at any Walgreens Drug Store. The Orange Line station connected to Midway Airport has machines that take credit cards.

Alternate Hotels.

Those who do not wish to stay at the Sheraton Towers can stay at the Embassy Suites one block away (511 N. Columbus Drive) Some single room go for as low as $189.00 and breakfast/happy hour are included. There are many other rooms across the river from the Sheraton (Hyatt, Swissotel, Raddisson, etc., but their prices are equal or higher than those at the Sheraton).

WHERE TO EAT.

It is very difficult to come up with a “best restaurants” list in Chicago because there are so many great options. For this reason, I will share with you some of my favorites, and some of the best options near the Sheraton. Because the idea is for you to experience the local taste, I will leave out all chain restaurants. You can try those back home.

Tony’s best:

I believe there is no better restaurant in the Chicago area (and perhaps anywhere in the world) than 3-Michelin Star Alinea (1725 N. Halsted St. Open Wed-Sun) 18 course tasting menu for 2: $450.00 Reservations a must.

Frontera Grill. PBS’ Rick Bayless’ world famous restaurant (445 N. Clark St.) This place offers the best authentic Mexican food elevated to a higher artistic level. Rick is that famous chef you have watched for years on PBS’ “Mexico, One Plate at a Time”. Dinner for 2: $80.00 Reservations a must.

The Purple Pig. Great “tapas” style restaurant (not Spanish food) with a great wine selection (500 N. Michigan Avenue) Dinner for 2 depends on your appetite. Small dishes are the way to go. Reservations suggested.

Girl & the Goat. Great for sharing small plates. Many options for vegetarians (809 W. Randolph St.) Very popular with the locals. Dinner for 2: $60.00 Reservations suggested.

Tango Sur. A real parrillada argentina (3763 N. Southport Avenue). All meats with all the cuts from Argentina! Great chimichurri, empanadas, and yes, dulce de leche! Restaurant lets you bring your own wine. Dinner for 2: $60.00 Reservations encouraged.

Giordano’s. You have to try the real Chicago-style pizza. There are over 40 locations throughout Chicago, but the closest one to your hotel is within walking distance (730 N. Rush St.) Another option for real Chicago-style pizza is Pizzeria Uno (29 E. Ohio St) I know this is now a chain restaurant, but this is the place where it all started. Dinner for 2: $50.00

Portillo’s. If you are going to try the pizza, then you must try a Chicago-style hot dog. Portillo’s (100 W. Ontario St.) is the place to have the real thing. In case you do not know it, a Chicago dog is served on a poppy seed bun and it is topped with chopped white onions, sweet pickle relish, tomato slices, a dill pickle, sport peppers, celery salt, and mustard. If you value your life don’t ask for ketchup. Dinner for 2: $45.00

Parthenon. One of Chicago’s largest immigrant groups is our Greek community. There is very good Greek food in town, and there are plenty of places to eat. You can go to Greek town and enjoy a delicious meal just about anywhere; with this in mind, I decided to include in this post one of my favorites: Parthenon (314 S. Halsted St.) because of the food, the service and the looks. Dinner for 2: $80.00

GREAT RESTAURANTS WITHIN WALKING DISTANCE FROM THE SHERATON.

Yolk. The hotel has a decent restaurant for breakfast, but if you want to venture into the streets of Streeterville (that is the name of the neighborhood where I live and of your hotel) and positively have the best breakfast in town, walk two blocks to Yolk (355 E. Ohio St.) and enjoy. Because of its popularity, there is some waiting for an available table and they do not take reservations. The wait is outdoors, so I suggest that if you are used to warmer places, bring a jacket or a coat. Breakfast for 2: $40.00

Emilio’s. If you are looking for very good Spanish tapas, there is an excellent place less than 2 blocks from the hotel: Emilio’s (215 E. Ohio St) offers a wide variety of tapas and Spanish wines. This would be a great place for after the session gatherings as well. Dinner for 2: $80.00

Niu. Your hotel is less than one block from my favorite Japanese-fusion restaurant in town. Go to Niu (332 E. Illinois St.) and have some sushi or explore the fusion menu. They also have a good selection of sake. Dinner for 2: $100.00

Volare. If Italian is your thing, then go to Volare (201 E. Grand Ave.) It is about 4 blocks from your hotel and it is the Italian restaurant in this part of town where all locals go; and we go there for the food and service. Dinner for 2: $100.00 Reservations recommended.

Bandera. If your thing is good food, a nice jazz ensemble, and a great view of the Magnificent Mile, then you must dine at Bandera (535 N. Michigan Ave. First Floor) Sometimes I like to go to their very nice bar instead of their dining room. Dinner for 2: $100.00 Reservations recommended.

Sayat Nova. I know Armenian food may not be one of the most popular selections during the conference, but I had to include it because Sayat Nova (157 E. Ohio St.) is less than 4 blocks from your hotel and the food is very good. Dare yourself and try this place that is part of our Streeterville neighborhood character. Dinner for 2: $80.00 Reservations optional.

Ditka’s & Michael Jordan’s. I include this two places because of their owners: Two of Chicago’s icons. At Coach Ditka’s place (100 E. Chestnut St.) you can enjoy some of the best bread in town and perhaps meet the guy. Warning: This is a good 20 minute very enjoyable walk, so you may want to consider a taxi ($10.00) Michael Jordan’s Steakhouse (505 N. Michigan Avenue at the Intercontinental Hotel) is a lot closer than Ditka’s, and it offers some of the best hamburgers in Chicagoland. Both places are very crowded and you will probably wait for a table. Dinner for 2: $80.00

The Food Trucks. Another interesting thing to try for lunch are the food trucks that we have in Chicago. About a block from the hotel, in front of the University of Chicago’s Chicago Booth you can find these trucks Monday-Friday during lunch hours. Lunch: $20.00 (or less) per person.

BARS BY THE HOTEL.

There are many great bars around the Sheraton, even the hotel lobby bar (Chi Bar) offers a good variety of mixed drinks, but I suggest you get out of the hotel, walk right next door by the river side, and have a drink at Lizzie McNeil’s Irish Pub (400 N. McClurg Ct.), walk one block to Lucky Strikes where you can have a drink and do some bowling at the same time (322 E. Illinois St.) or walk 3 blocks to my favorite: Timothy O’Toole’s (622 N. Fairbanks Ct.) where you can catch a game on TV, have a microbrewery beer, and enjoy some good old bar food.

NIGHTLIFE.

Chicago never sleeps and it offers some of the best after hours activities. If you are a night owl I suggest you save some time to go to a blues or jazz establishment. I recommend Blue Chicago (536 N. Clark St.) for great blues every night. For some other cities you may consider that they start late and gets very crowded. There is an admission charge that depends on the band that is playing that night. If you prefer jazz, my favorite spot is the Jazz Showcase (806 S. Plymouth Ct.) it is a traditional place where you will be greeted by the owner. The music is wonderful and the drinks are good at this historic venue. There is an admission charge and a minimum. You will enjoy them both! If you want something more relaxed and early, I suggest the lobby bar of the Millennium Knickerbocker Hotel (163 E. Walton Pl.) where you can enjoy a cocktail while listening to the piano bar music. No cover, no minimum, and very friendly bartenders (drinks are a little expensive). However, if you want to go where tourists go to see Chicago’s skyline from way up there, you need to go to the Signature Room (95th. Floor of the John Hancock Building). You can have a drink while admiring Chicago’s magnificent architecture, or if you prefer, you can have dinner way up there. For dinner: Reservations a must. Dinner for 2: $120.00

There are many places to go dancing in the area. You can look them all up on Yelp.

SIGHTSEEING.

There is so much to see and so little time. This will be the trip that will make you decide to come back as a tourist in the near future. A good way to see some of the main attractions is to get a ticket to the hop on-hop off bus. Tickets can be purchased at the Navy Pier (close to the hotel) and probably at the Sheraton. If you decide to do this, I suggest you sit on the top floor so you can see the tall buildings, and you will definitely need a coat, a hat, and gloves because it will get cold on the top. Chicago is built for walking, so I definitely encourage you to walk the city. Walk the Magnificent Mile and see all the designer shops and boutiques, stop and see the hundreds of fragments from all important buildings in the world that decorate the walls of the Chicago Tribune Building, and take your picture with the Wrigley Building behind you; walk by the beach (yes, we have beaches in Chicago!) and see the waves breaking against the wall barrier, walk by the Navy Pier and see the sailboats (if there are any left by November) walk in the business center (the loop) and admire the architecture while exploring structures like the Sears Tower, (go to the top and walk on the acrylic surface) Union Station (where the first scene of the Untouchables movie was filmed) Picasso’s gigantic sculpture outside City Hall, Chagall’s Four Season’s mural, and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. I know that the conference will keep you very busy, but a “must” for all visitors is Millennium Park (just across the river from your hotel) Spend some time in the park and take your picture with the iconic “Chicago Bean”. By the way, I know the tower is now Willis, but to us in the city it will always be Sears.

Finally, I just wanted to give you the cultural options we have in case you may want to check them out (and if you have time, you should):

Chicago Art Institute. Recently voted the Best Museum in the World (111 S. Michigan Ave.)

Adler Planetarium (1300 Lake Shore Dr.) Admission: $12.00 per person

Shedd Aquarium (1200 Lake Shore Dr.) Admission: $6.00 per person

Field Museum (1400 S. Lake Shore Dr.) Admission: $18.00

Museum of Science and Industry (5700 S. Laker Shore Dr.) Admission: $18.00

Wrigley Field. Yes, they have tours (1060 W. Addison St.) Addison station on the subway Red Line. Tour tickets: $25.00 per person.

Theater. Only New York City has more theaters than Chicago. Enjoy a musical or a play one of the evenings. For more information, visit: www.broadwayinchicago.com

Sports. Chicago has professional sports teams in all major sports: The Cubs and White Sox in Major League Baseball (MLB), the Fire in Major League Soccer (MLS), the Bulls in the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Blackhawks in the National Hockey League (NHL), the Bears in the National Football League (NFL) and the Sky in the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) There is no baseball season in November and the Bears will be away, but if you want to go to a very exciting professional sport and root for a Chicago team, these are the possibilities:

NBA: Chicago Bulls vs. Cleveland Cavaliers (October 31, 7:00 PM at the United Center)

NHL: Chicago Blackhawks vs. Winnipeg Jets (November 2, 8:00 PM at the United Center)

NBA: Chicago Bulls vs. Orlando Magic (November 4, 7:00 PM at the United Center)

College: Chicago Flames vs. Beloit Buccaneers (November 6, 7:00 PM at UIC Pavilion. College Hockey)

There is an exhibition rugby game between the United States Eagles and the New Zealand All Blacks on November 1, at 3:00 PM at Soldier Field Stadium

For tickets to any of these events, visit: www.findticketsfast.com

I hope you find this information useful and get to know my city a little better. I know the conference is very time-consuming, it is very interesting, and that is really why you are coming to Chicago; however, if you find that you have some free time, if you are coming to town early, or if you are staying for a few days after the conference, try to visit, see, taste, and enjoy some of the great places I have included in this piece. My experience as a conference-goer tells me that there are always situations when you need to talk to some colleagues, and you want to do it away from the rest; it is for those occasions that I have detailed the places to go in this article.

Once again, I am so sorry I will miss all of you in beautiful Chicago, but at least I now feel that I have welcomed you to my kind of town. Please feel free to share with the rest of us any other suggestions about Chicago that you may have.

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